Threads often use the same memory space and data structures. This makes unsafe to allow simultaneous access to such resources or data without a protocol for safe access. MUTEX or Mutual Exclusion is the method  used to check this and give a serializing access to shared resources & data. It is like lock which can […]

Read More →

Threads are semi-processes or low weight processes that have its own stack, and executes given piece of code. Unlike processes, the memory is shared with other threads thus can share global variables, same heap memory, and same set of file descriptors. Threads execute in parallel assuming system has several processors. Advantages of threads over processes: […]

Read More →

After the basics of what & why of O.S. lets gaze at its construction. For efficient performance & implementation of different functions & services of operating system, it is divided into various architectural configurations. Simple Structures : DOS & original UNIX OS did not have well-defined structure and is written without  the benefits of modern […]

Read More →

An operating system is a collection of programs which provide a platform where users can execute their task in efficient & convenient manner. This is done by managing hardware resources and providing common services to other programs. Why do we need operating systems? Provides a high level abstraction of physical resources and standard facilities like: […]

Read More →

Kali Linux is loaded with many tools for hacking and exploitation. Discussing here the basic tools which are used generally for network penetration. >>Wireshark : This is sniffer or analyzer application which is used to capture and browse contents of network frames. It can be used to reconstruct TCP/IP streams. >>Kismet : It is an […]

Read More →

First internet connection was established in 1969 which was advancement of computer network by ARPA commissioned in 1968. Different protocols were developed with course of time. Between 1977 and 1979 IPv 0-3 were used. IPv 4 came on front in 1983 and in 1992 work began on IP next generation (IPng) which became IPv6. IPv6 […]

Read More →

HTML Form A form is defined with the <form> tag: <form> . input elements . </form> Input Tag and Attributes The most used form tag is the <input> tag. The type of input is specified with the type attribute. The following types are the most commonly used input types. Text Fields Text fields are used […]

Read More →

Features and benefits of using shell scripts: *Quick prototyping and no need to compile *Create your own new commands *Combine long and repetitive sequences of commands into one single command *Automate task and reduce risk of errors Shell script commands can be divided into three categories : Compiled applications like rm, ls Built-in bash commands […]

Read More →