Programming Languages And Computer Communication Protocols

Before learning HTML and proceeding further, first of all you should know HOW INTERNET WORKS?

When the client(user) sends the request(the web page) to the server, the server look for the request(the web page) and send file according to it.
To make web pages, you create files written in HTML(Hyper Text Markup Language) and place them on web server. The HTML in your web page tells the browser everything it needs to know to display to your page. Once you’ve put your files on a web server, any web browser can retrieve your pages over the internet.

What does the web server do?

Web servers have a full time job on the Internet, tirelessly waiting for requests from Web browsers. What kinds of requests? Requests for Web pages,images, sounds, or maybe even a movie. When a server gets a request for any of these resources, the server finds the resource, and then sends it back to the browser.

What does the Web browser do?

You already know how a browser works: you’re surfing around the Web and you click on a link to visit a page. That click causes your browser to request an HTML page from a Web server, retrieve it, and display the page in your browser window.
But, how does the browser know how to display a page? That’s where HTML comes in. HTML tells the browser all about the content and structure of your document: where the headings are, where the paragraphs are, what text needs emphasis, and so on. Given this information, browsers have built-in default rules for how to display each of these elements. But, you don’t have to settle for the default settings. You can add your own style and formatting rules with CSS that determine font, colours, size, and a lot of other characteristics of your page. We’ll get back to CSS later on. Let’s see how that works…

What is HTML?

HTML is a language for describing Web pages.
1. HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language.
2. HTML is not a programming language, it is a markup language.
3. A markup language is a collection of markup tags.
4. HTML uses markup tags to describe Web pages.

What are Tags?

1. HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags or just tags.
2. HTML tags are keywords surrounds by angle brackets like <html>.
3. HTML tags normally comes in pairs, like <p> and </p>.
4. The first tag in the pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag.
5. HTML tags are not case sensitive: <P> means the same as <p>.

HTML Elements

HTML documents are defined by HTML Elements. An HTML Elements is everything between the start tag and end tag. The start tag is often called Opening tag and end tag is often called Closing tag.

HTML Documents= Web Pages

1. HTML Documents describe web pages.
2. HTML Documents contain HTML tags and plain text.

HTML Page Structure

Below is a visualization of an HTML page structure:

html page structure

Here is the simple HTML code, write it in notepad or any text editor and save it as “first web page.html” .html and .htm are the extensions.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<title> First web page </title>
<h1> HTML</h1>
<p>This is my first HTML web page</p>

The web page looks like the image shown below..


Here is the description of each tag.

<html> //Tells the browser this is the start of HTML.
<head> //Starts the page “head”.
<title> First web page </title> //Gives the page a title.
</head> //End of the header.
<body> //Start of the body of page.
<h1> HTML</h1> //Tells browser that this is a heading.
<p>This is my first HTML web page</p> //Tells browser that this is a paragraph.
</body> //End of the body.
</html> //Tells the browser this is the end of the HTML.

Q: Why do the closing tags have that extra “/”?

A: That “/” in the closing tag is to help both you and the browser know where a particular piece of structured content ends. Otherwise, the
closing tags would look just like the opening tags, right?

The <!DOCTYPE> Declaration

1. The <!DOCTYPE> declaration helps the browser to display a web page correctly.
2. There are different document types on the web.
3. To display a document correctly, the browser must know both type and version.
4. The doctype declaration is not case sensitive. All cases are acceptable.

Common Declarations..


HTML versions

HTML versions

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