In packet switching networks, routing is the process that directs or route the data packets depending on the destination address contained in each packet. During the process, router glance to a table (forwarding table) storing destination address of the incoming packet and takes out the information necessary to determine the path of the packets. The […]

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Hello All, Are you fed up installing Softwares through GUI i.e. mouse clicks? You must have experienced it while working with Windows. A series of dialog box appears with Next, Agree, OK, Cancel buttons. Had this been Linux you wouldn’t have these issues. By default, Linux comes with package managers like yum, apt, pac, etc.   So what about […]

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Threads often use the same memory space and data structures. This makes unsafe to allow simultaneous access to such resources or data without a protocol for safe access. MUTEX or Mutual Exclusion is the method  used to check this and give a serializing access to shared resources & data. It is like lock which can […]

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Threads are semi-processes or low weight processes that have its own stack, and executes given piece of code. Unlike processes, the memory is shared with other threads thus can share global variables, same heap memory, and same set of file descriptors. Threads execute in parallel assuming system has several processors. Advantages of threads over processes: […]

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After the basics of what & why of O.S. lets gaze at its construction. For efficient performance & implementation of different functions & services of operating system, it is divided into various architectural configurations. Simple Structures : DOS & original UNIX OS did not have well-defined structure and is written without  the benefits of modern […]

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An operating system is a collection of programs which provide a platform where users can execute their task in efficient & convenient manner. This is done by managing hardware resources and providing common services to other programs. Why do we need operating systems? Provides a high level abstraction of physical resources and standard facilities like: […]

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