An operating system is a collection of programs which provide a platform where users can execute their task in efficient & convenient manner. This is done by managing hardware resources and providing common services to other programs. Why do we need operating systems? Provides a high level abstraction of physical resources and standard facilities like: […]

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Kali Linux is loaded with many tools for hacking and exploitation. Discussing here the basic tools which are used generally for network penetration. >>Wireshark : This is sniffer or analyzer application which is used to capture and browse contents of network frames. It can be used to reconstruct TCP/IP streams. >>Kismet : It is an […]

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First internet connection was established in 1969 which was advancement of computer network by ARPA commissioned in 1968. Different protocols were developed with course of time. Between 1977 and 1979 IPv 0-3 were used. IPv 4 came on front in 1983 and in 1992 work began on IP next generation (IPng) which became IPv6. IPv6 […]

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Features and benefits of using shell scripts: *Quick prototyping and no need to compile *Create your own new commands *Combine long and repetitive sequences of commands into one single command *Automate task and reduce risk of errors Shell script commands can be divided into three categories : Compiled applications like rm, ls Built-in bash commands […]

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It’s well known that console text editors promote a working style that promote you doing lots of things deterministically in constant time. For this reason it is necessary to know some basic commands of Linux. For finding present work directory the command is >pwd . When it returns “/root” it means we are in top […]

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Small is beautiful !! This is not the only reason to prefer Unix over other OS. For developing a real Hacker Attitude there are many things than trying tweaks and tricks . When Linux apps used for exploitation like Zenmap, and Metasploit are developed in Linux and then ported over to Windows, they often lose […]

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The Hacker Manifesto or The Conscience of a Hacker is a small essay written January 8, 1986 by a computer security hacker who went by the handle of The Mentor (born Loyd Blankenship), who belonged to the 2nd generation of Legion of Doom. The Hacker Manifesto by +++The Mentor+++ Written January 8, 1986 Another one […]

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In most of the programming problems, the most commonly used operation is modular division . Its very simple to use, and has very simple syntax a%n (in C/C++),where a is the dividend and n is the divisor and the output of the above expression(a%n) being the remainder , with which you all must be aware […]

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This post is to guide those people who want to get started or have just started with programming/competitive programming. Through this post,we aim to guide you about which topics you should read and practice in a systematic way. We have provided short explanations and links to proper resources at relevant places, so that you utilize […]

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