In packet switching networks, routing is the process that directs or route the data packets depending on the destination address contained in each packet. During the process, router glance to a table (forwarding table) storing destination address of the incoming packet and takes out the information necessary to determine the path of the packets. The […]

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MCTS or Monte-Carlo Tree Search is a method for making optimal decisions in problems with many possible outcomes. It is the best heuristic search technique that uses stochastic simulations with the precision of tree search. This algorithm involves four major steps. A search tree is built, node by node, according to the outcomes of simulated playouts from […]

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WEP is an old encryption but it is still used in some networks. It uses algorithm called RC4 where each packet is encrypted at access point and is decrypted at client. Assuming wifi card to be in monitor mode. Checking available networks: >airodump-ng mon0 Launching airodump on target network >airodump-ng channel ch bssid write filename […]

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Threads often use the same memory space and data structures. This makes unsafe to allow simultaneous access to such resources or data without a protocol for safe access. MUTEX or Mutual Exclusion is the method  used to check this and give a serializing access to shared resources & data. It is like lock which can […]

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Threads are semi-processes or low weight processes that have its own stack, and executes given piece of code. Unlike processes, the memory is shared with other threads thus can share global variables, same heap memory, and same set of file descriptors. Threads execute in parallel assuming system has several processors. Advantages of threads over processes: […]

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After the basics of what & why of O.S. lets gaze at its construction. For efficient performance & implementation of different functions & services of operating system, it is divided into various architectural configurations. Simple Structures : DOS & original UNIX OS did not have well-defined structure and is written without  the benefits of modern […]

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